Rabu, 16 April 2014


Active / Passive Verb Forms
Sentences can be active or passive. Therefore, tenses also have "active forms" and "passive forms." You must learn to recognize the difference to successfully speak English.
Active Form
In active sentences, the thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing receiving the action is the object. Most sentences are active.
[Thing doing action] + [verb] + [thing receiving action]

Passive Form
In passive sentences, the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end of the sentence. You can use the passive form if you think that the thing receiving the action is more important or should be emphasized. You can also use the passive form if you do not know who is doing the action or if you do not want to mention who is doing the action.
[Thing receiving action] + [be] + [past participle of verb] + [by] + [thing doing action]

Active / Passive Overview

Simple Present
Once a week, Tom cleans the house.
Once a week, the house is cleaned by Tom.
Present Continuous
Right now, Sarah is writing the letter.
Right now, the letter is being written by Sarah.
Simple Past
Sam repaired the car.
The car was repaired by Sam.
Past Continuous
The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store.
The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store.
Present Perfect
Many tourists have visited that castle.
That castle has been visited by many tourists.
Present Perfect Continuous
Recently, John has been doing the work.
Recently, the work has been being done by John.
Past Perfect
George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic's license.
Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic's license.
Past Perfect Continuous
Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant's fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris.
The restaurant's fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris.
Simple Future
Someone will finish the work by 5:00 PM.
The work will be finished by 5:00 PM.
Simple Future
be going to
Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight.
Future Continuous
At 8:00 PM tonight, John will be washing the dishes.
At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by John.
Future Continuous
be going to
At 8:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes.
At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by John.
Future Perfect
They will have completed the project before the deadline.
The project will have been completed before the deadline.
Future Perfect
be going to
They are going to have completed the project before the deadline.
The project is going to have been completed before the deadline.
Future Perfect Continuous
The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.
The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.
Future Perfect Continuous
be going to
The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.
The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.
Used to
Jerry used to pay the bills.
The bills used to be paid by Jerry.
Would Always
My mother would always make the pies.
The pies would always be made by my mother.
Future in the Past
I knew John would finish the work by 5:00 PM.
I knew the work would be finished by 5:00 PM.
Future in the Past
Was Going to
I thought Sally was going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be made by Sally tonight.

Sentences in Active and Passive Voice

Here are examples of sentences written in both the active voice and the passive voice, with the active voice sentence appearing first:
1.      Harry ate six shrimp at dinner. (active)
At dinner, six shrimp were eaten by Harry. (passive)
2.      Beautiful giraffes roam the savannah. (active)
The savannah is roamed by beautiful giraffes. (passive)
3.      Sue changed the flat tire. (active)
The flat tire was changed by Sue. (passive)
4.      We are going to watch a movie tonight. (active)
A movie is going to be watched by us tonight. (passive)
5.      I ran the obstacle course in record time. (active)
The obstacle course was run by me in record time. (passive)
6.      The crew paved the entire stretch of highway. (active)
The entire stretch of highway was paved by the crew. (passive)
7.      Mom read the novel in one day. (active)
The novel was read by Mom in one day. (passive)
8.      The critic wrote a scathing review. (active)
A scathing review was written by the critic. (passive)
9.      I will clean the house every Saturday. (active)
The house will be cleaned by me every Saturday. (passive)
10.  The staff is required to watch a safety video every year. (active)
A safety video will be watched by the staff every year. (passive)
11.  She faxed her application for a new job. (active)
The application for a new job was faxed by her. (passive)
12.  Tom painted the entire house. (active)
The entire house was painted by Tom. (passive)
13.  The teacher always answers the students’ questions. (active)
The students’ questions are always answered by the teacher. (passive)
14.  The choir really enjoys that piece. (active)
That piece is really enjoyed by the choir. (passive)
15.  Who taught you to ski? (active)
By whom were you taught to ski? (passive)
16.  The forest fire destroyed the whole suburb. (active)
The whole suburb was destroyed by the forest fire. (passive)
17.  The two kings are signing the treaty. (active)
The treaty is being signed by the two kings. (passive)
18.  The cleaning crew vacuums and dusts the office every night. (active)
Every night the office is vacuumed and dusted by the cleaning crew. (passive)
19.  Larry generously donated money to the homeless shelter. (active)
Money was generously donated to the homeless shelter by Larry. (passive)
20.  No one responded to my sales ad. (active)
My sales ad was not responded to by anyone. (passive)
21.  The wedding planner is making all the reservations. (active)
All the reservations will be made by the wedding planner. (passive)
22.  Susan will bake two dozen cupcakes for the bake sale. (active)
For the bake sale, two dozen cookies will be baked by Susan. (passive)
23.  The science class viewed the comet. (active)
The comet was viewed by the science class. (passive)
24.  Who ate the last cookie? (active)
The last cookie was eaten by whom? (passive)
25.  Alex posted the video on Facebook. (active)
The video was posted on Facebook by Alex. (passive)

26.  The director will give you instructions. (active)
Instructions will be given to you by the director. (passive)
27.  Thousands of tourists view the Grand Canyon every year. (active)
The Grand Canyon is viewed by thousands of tourists every year. (passive)
28.  The homeowners remodeled the house to help it sell. (active)
The house was remodeled by the homeowners to help it sell. (passive)
29.  The team will celebrate their victory tomorrow. (active)
The victory will be celebrated by the team tomorrow. (passive)
30.  The saltwater eventually corroded the metal beams. (active)
The metal beams were eventually corroded by the saltwater. (passive)
31.  The kangaroo carried her baby in her pouch. (active)
The baby was carried by the kangaroo in her pouch. (passive)
32.  Some people raise sugar cane in Hawaii. (active)
Sugar cane is raised by some people in Hawaii. (passive)

Passive Verb Formation

The passive forms of a verb are created by combining a form of the "to be verb" with the past participle of the main verb. Other helping verbs are also sometimes present: "The measure could have been killed in committee." The passive can be used, also, in various tenses. Let's take a look at the passive forms of "design."
The car/cars
Present perfect
The car/cars
has been
have been
The car/cars
Past perfect
The car/cars
had been
had been
The car/cars
will be
will be
Future perfect
The car/cars
will have been
will have been
Present progressive
The car/cars
is being
are being
Past progressive
The car/cars
was being
were being

A sentence cast in the passive voice will not always include an agent of the action. For instance if a gorilla crushes a tin can, we could say "The tin can was crushed by the gorilla." But a perfectly good sentence would leave out the gorilla: "The tin can was crushed." Also, when an active sentence with an indirect object is recast in the passive, the indirect object can take on the role of subject in the passive sentence:
Professor Villa gave Jorge an A.
An A was given to Jorge by Professor Villa.
Jorge was given an A.

Daftar pustaka :

Minggu, 16 Maret 2014


Conditional Sentences / If-Clauses Type I, II und III

Conditional Sentences are also known as Conditional Clauses or If Clauses. They are used to express that the action in the main clause (without if) can only take place if a certain condition (in the clause with if) is fulfilled. There are three types of Conditional Sentences. Conditional sentences are statements discussing known factors or hypothetical situations and their consequences. These sentences use conditional construction and verb forms, which is called the conditional mood. Complete conditional sentences contain a conditional clause and the consequence. As a refresher, a clause is a group of words with their own subject and verb. Consider the following sentence:
The tricky part about constructing a conditional sentence is it involves many factors both in its form and meaning. Since there are various factors involved when writing conditional sentences, the rules can be explained in different ways. The properties of the entire conditional sentences are determined by the condition’s tense and degree of realness.

Conditional Sentence Type 1
→ It is possible and also very likely that the condition will be fulfilled.

Example: 1. If I find her address, I’ll send her an invitation.
               2. If Caroline and Sue prepare the salad, Phil will decorate the house.
               3. Jane will hoover the sitting room if Aaron and Tim move the furniture.
               4. If Bob tidies up the kitchen, Anita will clean the toilet.
               5. Elaine will buy the drinks if somebody helps her carry the bottles.
   6. If Alan and Rebecca organise the food, Mary and Conor will make the           
               7. Frank will play the DJ if the others bring along their CDs.
               8. If Alan will mix the drinks if Jane gives him some of her cocktail recipes.  
       they all do their best, the party will be great.
               9. If Willy looks after the barbecue, Bella will let the guests in
              10. If Sherly cuts the onions for the salad, Caroline will peel the mushrooms.

Conditional Sentence Type 2

→ It is possible but very unlikely, that the condition will be fulfilled.
Form: if + Simple Past, Conditional I (= would + Infinitive)

Example: 1.If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.
               2. If I played the lottery, I would have a chance to hit the jackpot.
               3. If I hit the jackpot, I would be rich.
               4. If I were rich, my life would change completely.
               5. I would buy a lonely island, if I found a nice one.
               6. If I owned a lonely island, I would build a huge house by the beach.
               7. I would invite all my friends if I had a house by the beach.
               8. If we liked to go shopping in a big city, we would charter a helicopter.
               9. But if my friends' holidays were over, I would feel very lonely on my lonely
              10. We would have great parties if my friends came to my island.

Conditional Sentence Type 3

→ It is impossible that the condition will be fulfilled because it refers to the past.
Form: if + Past Perfect, Conditional II (= would + have + Past Participle)

Example: 1.If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.
                2. If the forwards had run faster, they would have scored more goals.
                3. Their motivation would have improved if they had kicked a goal during the
         first half.
                4. If the goalie had jumped up, he would have caught the ball.
5. If the referee had seen the foul, he would have awarded a penalty kick to our             

                6. Our team would have been in better form if they had trained harder the
          weeks before.
                7. If it had been a home game, our team would have won the match.
                8. If our team had won the match, they would have moved up in the league.
                9. If the midfielders had passed the ball more exactly, our team would have had
        more chances to attack.
               10. The fullbacks would have prevented one or the other goal if they had
         marked their opponents.
Sometimes Conditional Sentences Type I, II and III can also be used with other tenses.


Selasa, 29 Oktober 2013


Contoh Kasus Pelanggaran Etika  Bisnis oleh Produk HIT

Saya ambil contoh dari iklan produk HIT. Produk HIT dianggap merupakan anti nyamuk yang efektif dan murah untuk menjauhkan nyamuk dari kita. Tetapi, ternyata murahnya harga tersebut juga membawa dampak negatif bagi konsumen HIT. Telah ditemukan zat kimia berbahaya di dalam kandungan kimia HIT  yang dapat membahayakan kesehatan konsumennya, yaitu Propoxur dan Diklorvos. 2 zat ini berakibat buruk bagi manusia, antara lain keracunan terhadap darah, gangguan syaraf, gangguan pernapasan, gangguan terhadap sel pada tubuh, kanker hati dan kanker lambung. Obat anti-nyamuk HIT yang dinyatakan berbahaya yaitu jenis HIT 2,1 A (jenis semprot) dan HIT 17 L (cair isi ulang). Departemen Pertanian juga telah mengeluarkan larangan penggunaan Diklorvos untuk pestisida dalam rumah tangga sejak awal 2004 (sumber : Republika Online). Hal itu membuat kita dapat melihat dengan jelas bahwa pemerintah tidak sungguh-sungguh berusaha melindungi masyarakat umum sebagai konsumen. Produsen masih dapat menciptakan produk baru yang berbahaya bagi konsumen tanpa inspeksi pemerintah.

Pembahasan dan Analisis 

1     Jenis Pelanggaran ?
Pelanggaran prinsip etika bisnis yang dilakukan yaitu prinsip kejujuran  dimana perusahaan tidak memberikan peringatan kepada konsumen mengenai kandungan yang ada pada produk mereka yang sangat berbahaya untuk kesehatan dan perusahaan juga tidak member tahu penggunaan dari produk tersebut yaitu setelah suatu ruangan di semprot oleh produk itu semestinya di tunggu 30 menit terlebih dahulu baru kemudian dapat dimasuki / digunakan ruangan tersebut.

2.      Siapa Yang Melakukan Pelanggaran ?
PT. Megasari Makmur

3.      Apa Akibatnya ?
Akibat dari 2 zat kimia Propoxur dan Diklorvos yang berbahaya bagi manusia mengakibatkan keracunan terhadap darah , gangguan syaraf , gangguan pernapasan , gangguan terhadap sel tubuh , kanker hati dan kanker lambung.

4.      Apa Tindakan Pemerintah ?
Hal ini kita dapat melihat dengan jelas bahwa pemerintah tidak bersungguh-sungguh berusaha melindungi masyarakat umum sebagai konsumen. karena masih banyak produsen menciptakan produk baru yang berbahaya bagi konsumen tanpa inspeksi pemerintah.

5.      Melanggar UU pasal berapa ?
Jika dilihat menurut UUD , PT. Megasari Makmur sudah melanggar beberapa pasal, yaitu:

1.      Pasal 4, hak konsumen
Ayat 1: “ hak atas kenyamanan, Keamanan, dan keselamatan dalam mengkonsumsi barang / jasa “

Ayat 3 : “ hak atas informasi yang benar, jelas, dan jujur mengenai kondisi dan jaminan barang / jasa “

PT. Megasari Makmur tidak pernah member peringatan kepada konsumen tentang adanya zat-zat berbahaya di dalam produk mereka. Akibat nya kesehatan konsumen dibahayakan dengan alas an mengurangi biaya produksi HIT.

2.      Pasal 7, kewajiban pelaku usaha
Ayat 2 : “ memberikan informasi yang benar, jelas, dan jujur mengenai kondisi dan jaminan barang / jasa serta member penjelasan penggunaan, perbaikan dan pemeliharaan “

PT. Megasari Makmur tidak pernah menberi indikasi penggunaan pada produk mereka, dimana seharusnya apabila sebuah kamar disemprot dengan pertisida, harus dibiarkan selama setengah jam sebelum boleh dimasuki lagi.

3.      Pasal 8
Ayat 1 : “ pelaku usaha dilarang memproduksi / memperdagangkan barang / jasa yang tidak memenuhi atau tidak sesuai dengan standar yang dipersyaratkan dan ketentuan peraturan perundang-undangan “

PT. Megasari Makmur tetap meluncurkan produk mereka walaupun produk HIT tersebut tidak memenuhi standard an ketentuan yang berlaku bagi barang tersebut. Seharusnya, produk HIT tersebut sudah ditarik dari peredaran agar tidak terjadi hal-hal yang tidak di inginkan, tetapi mereka tetap menjual walaupun sudah ada korban dari produknya.

4.      Pasal 19
Ayat 1 : “ pelaku usaha bertanggung jawab memberikan ganti rugi atas kerusakan, pencemaran, dan kerugian konsumen akibat mengkonsumsi barang / jasa yang dihasilkan atau di perdagangkan “

Ayat 2 : “ ganti rugi sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (1) dapat berupa pengembalian uang atau penggantian barang / jasa yang sejenis atau setara nilainya, atau perawatan kesehatan dan pemberian santunan yang sesuai dengan ketentuan peraturan perundang-undangan yang berlaku “

Ayat 3 : “ pemberian ganti rugi dilaksanakan dalam tenggang waktu 7 hari setelah tanggal transaksi “

Menurut pasal tersebut PT. Megasari Makmur harusmembarikan ganti rugi kepada konsumen karena telah merugikan para konsumen.


Pelanggaran etika bisnis itu dapat melemahkan daya saing hasil industry di pasar internasional. Ini bias terjadi sikap para pengusaha kita. Lebih extreme bila pengusaha Indonesia menganggap remeh etika bisnis yang berlaku secara umum dan tidak mengikat itu. Kencendrungan makin banyaknya  pelanggaran etika bisnis membuat ke prihatinan banyak pihak. Pengabdian etika bisnis dirasakan akan membawa kerugian tidak saja buat masyarakat, tetapi juga bagi tatanan ekonomi nasional. Disadari atau tidak, para pengusaha yang tidak memperhatikan etika bisnis akan menghancurkan nama mereka sendiri dan Negara.

Seperti pada kasus PT Megarsari Makmur (produk HIT) masalah yang terjadi dikarenakan kurangnya pengetahuan dan informasi mengenai kandungan-kandungan apa saja yang terkandung dalam produk tersebut