Senin, 30 Mei 2011


Dibuat oleh :

ESTI SARI DEWI AP                           19210768
SUHANDY DARMAWAN                   16210633
DIMAS RANDY NASRULLAH          12210044



We prayed Praise and Gratitude to Allah SWT, because with Him Ridho we can finish this paper, the opportunity this time we will discuss about "Management Manager. " This paper is one of the tasks given by the Lecturer softskill Basic English.
For that we thank you to all those who have been directly involved in the process of making this paper.
We realize that this paper still has many flaws, therefore we welcome any suggestions and criticism from Supervisor in order to increase and expansion.


The word comes from French Management ménagement old, who has a sense of art to implement and manage. [1] Management definition does not have an established and universally accepted. [2] Mary Parker Follett, for example, defines management as the art work done through others. This definition means that a manager responsible for managing and directing others to achieve organizational goals. [3] Rick W. Griffin defines management as a process of planning, organizing, coordinating, and controlling resources to achieve the objectives (goals) in an effective and efficient. Effective means that the goal can be achieved in accordance with the planning, while efficient means that the task is done correctly, organized, and in accordance with the schedule. [4]

Before the 20th century, there were two important events in management science. [2] The first incident occurred in 1776, when Adam Smith published a doctrine of classical economics, The Wealth of Nations. In his book, he put forward the economic advantages to be gained from the division of labor organization (division of labor), which details the work into specific tasks and repetitive. By using a pin mill industry as an example, Smith said that with ten people each perform specific job-pin companies to produce approximately 48,000 pins a day. However, if each person worked alone completing each section of work, was very great when they are able to produce ten pins a day. Smith concluded that division of labor can increase productivity by (1) increasing the skill and dexterity of each worker, (2) save time to lose in the turn of duty, and (3) create machines and other discoveries that can save labor. [8]

The second important event that influenced the development of management science is the Industrial Revolution in England. The Industrial Revolution marks the beginning of use of the machine, replace human labor, which resulted in the relocation of production activities from houses toward a special place called the factory. The move has resulted in managers when it takes a theory that can help them forecast demand, ensure sufficient supplies of raw materials, giving tasks to subordinates, directing daily activities, etc., so that science manajamen began to be developed by experts


 The manager is someone who works through others to coordinate their activities in order to achieve organizational goals Pyramids of number of employees in organizations with traditional structures, based on its level. In traditionally structured organizations, managers are often grouped into top managers, middle managers and first line managers (usually depicted with a pyramid shape, where a larger number of employees at the bottom than at the peak). First-line management (first-line management), also known by the term operational management, is the lowest level of management in charge of directing and supervising non-managerial employees involved in the production process. They are often referred to the supervisor (supervisor), shift manager, area manager, office manager, department manager, or foreman (foreman). Middle-management level (middle management) includes all the management were among the first-line managers and top management and served as a liaison between the two. Positions that included middle managers including the head part, the project leader, plant manager, or division manager.
Top management (top management), also known by the term executive officer, in charge of planning activities and general corporate strategy and directs the course of the company. Examples of top management is a CEO (Chief Executive Officer), CIO (Chief Information Officer) and CFO (Chief Financial Officer). However, not all organizations can accomplish their work by using this traditional pyramid shape. For example, the organization more flexible and simple, with work performed by a team of employees who are always changing, moving from one project to another in accordance with the demands of work. Henry Mintzberg, a professor of management science research, suggests that there are ten roles played by managers in the workplace. He then categorize the ten roles into three groups [13]. The first is the role of inter-personal, ie involving people and other liabilities, which are ceremonial and symbolic. This role includes a role as a figure for men, the leader, and liaison. The second is informational role, covering the role of managers as monitors and disseminator of information, and roles as a spokesperson. The third is the decision-making roles, including roles as an entrepreneur, problem solvers, resource divider, and negotiator. Mintzberg then concluded that in general, activities undertaken by the manager is to interact with others. [13]

[Edit] Skills Managers

[sunting] Keterampilan manajer

This picture shows the skills required managers at every level.
Robert L. Katz in the 1970s suggested that every manager needs at least three basic skills. [14] These three skills are:

1. Conceptual Skills (conceptional skills)

Top-level managers (top manager) must have the skills to create concepts, ideas, and ideas for the progress of the organization. The idea or ideas and concepts are then to be translated into a plan of activities to fulfill the idea or concept that. The process of translation of ideas into a concrete work plan which is usually referred to as the planning process or planning. Therefore, conceptual skills are also meruipakan skills to create a work plan.

2. Skills relate to others (humanity skills)
In addition to conceptual skills, managers also need to be equipped with communication skills or skills relate to other people, also called human skill. Persuasive communication should always be created by managers to subordinates they lead. With a persuasive communication, friendly, and fatherly will make employees feel valued and then they will be open to the boss. Communication skills required, both at the level of top management, middle, or bottom.

3. Technical skills (technical skills)

These skills are generally a provision for managers at lower levels. This technical skill is the ability to perform a specific job, for example using a computer program, fix the engine, making chairs, accounting and others. In addition to the above three basic skills, Ricky W. Griffin added two basic skills that need to be owned by managers, namely:

1. Time management skills

It is a skill that refers to the ability of a manager to use the time they have wisely. Griffin filed a case Lew Frankfort of Coach. In 2004, as manager, Frankfort paid $ 2,000,000 per year. If it is assumed that he worked for 50 hours per week with 2 weeks vacation time, then every hour Frankfort salary is $ 800 per hour-about $ 13 per minute. From there we can see that every minute is wasted would be very detrimental to the company. Most managers, of course, have a much smaller salary than Frankfort. However, the time they have remained a valuable asset, and menyianyiakannya means wasting money and reduce the productivity of firms.

2. Decision-making skills

Is the ability to define problems and determine the best way to solve them. Decision-making ability is the most important for a manager, especially for groups of managers (top manager). Griffin proposed three steps in making a decision. First, a manager must define the problem and looking for alternatives, which can be taken to resolve it. Second, managers must evaluate any existing alternatives and choose an alternative that is considered the most good. And lastly, managers must implement an alternative that has been his choice as well as monitor and evaluate them to stay on the right track.
There are many factors to influence others. For example, in the company, one of which is the power positions. The higher one's position in the office, such as managers, the stronger the effect on employees. Really always the case? Not really. If didudukan positions as the only limiting the power of the working assumption will tend to danger. Position is temporary. Any time someone could be fired. Thus even if there is power but the effect is very short time scale. Besides, if force is applied authoritarian position it would have happened even the emergence of resistance from the employees' actions. Even the employees likely will be many who left the company. Except for office-based leadership model that applied participatory oriented and establish an atmosphere of disciplined hard work and smart. Then what kind of other forces that should belong to the manager?
         Enough that the manager has only participative leadership?
This question is important because the leadership model proposed is also not the only one as a major force in influencing encouraged employees to work hard. Why is that? If only managers lack the power of knowledge about aspects of managerial, production, financial, marketing, etc. then the employee would be skeptical about the manager. Manager's credibility could decline. Trust employees to managers on the wane. Another example is what would happen if one day the customer came to the manager to request detailed info about a particular product quality. Then also do not know how to serve him. It is conceivable, the level of customer trust towards the manager and the company also declined. Can-can they be ngabur to other companies. Thus the power of managers in the form of extensive knowledge and insight into an important element in self leadership.
         In practice the power of knowledge did not deserve to be the only element of leadership self-management guides. Back to the examples above though has the power of high office and knowledge, but if the manager has a personality that is not capable of making employees and customers feel comfortable and safe then it's useless. Personality strength shown by the power of empathy and high motivation will give employees a very relaxed atmosphere and high performance. While the friendly nature of the manager when receiving the customer will create higher customer loyalty. Similarly, manager friendliness and sincerity towards the development of business networks will provide assurance to business partner how important cooperation was built.
        In addition to the three powers above, so there is again a power of leadership self-manager should have the power to build relationships. These forces ensure the establishment of working relationships with employees who synergistic, relationship marketing with customers / consumers is high, and business relationships with prospective business partners. To be more effective strength of the relationship so that the entire instrument should be employed managers, for example if the employee developed periodic meetings in an "exchange" innovative ideas with an open and informal relaxed. While with the customer can build a market survey and market promotion in door (open house), and with business partners to eat meals and business contacts lobby intensively and continuously.  Certainly the power of self-leadership of a manager is not only characterized by the four elements above are, ceteris paribus. There's more like strength and managerial vision. Two forces that are implicitly reflected in the ability of managers in applying the power of position, knowledge, personality, and strength of the relationship. In other words the full power of a manager in a variety of dimensions, the greater strength in building the leadership itself.


They also believe, the manager-employee relationship is a close and mutual trust will help make the values ​​more real employees. Employees sure, managers need constructive assistance in order to become a manager (preferably) both. Through an annual mechanism which is now entering its third year, employees were asked to provide feedback on their managers. This feedback is processed and each manager will receive a report indicating their strengths and weaknesses in managing employees.

Companies that invest to develop top talent and their managers will have a tremendous competitive advantage. The managers have a unique and important position to make employees love their jobs. Managers the ability to share and link corporate strategy with their teams have a direct impact on company success. It's a tough job, but we must trust our manager can do best.


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